The DoD Installation Energy Test Bed sought studies to understand the unique challenges associated with replacing fossil-fuel powered heavy-duty vehicles in the Department’s non-tactical fleet with zero-emission alternatives. The range of heavy-duty vehicles in the Department’s non-tactical fleet is quite broad and includes multipurpose vehicles and task-specific equipment with very different performance requirements and duty-cycles. Studies leveraged existing data and create new data where necessary to evaluate existing heavy-duty vehicle performance requirements and use-cases.
The outcomes of these studies will inform planning and programming for the acquisition, operations, and sustainment of zero-emission heavy-duty vehicles and the infrastructure required to support them. Studies should consider all factors that may affect the Department’s transition to zero-emission heavy-duty vehicles, to include, but not be limited to:
- Life cycle cost, performance, and reliability compared to fossil fuel-powered equipment.
- Infrastructure and logistics required to operate and maintain heavy-duty Zero-Emission Vehicles (ZEVs).
- Availability of ZEVs for specific vehicle types, or alternative vehicles to achieve specific mission requirements.
- If electrified vehicles are considered, electrical power requirements to meet battery charging demand under likely operational scenarios.
- Technological barriers to achieving the goal of 100% acquisition of ZEVs by 2035.
For the purposes of estimating the level of effort, proposers should plan to begin work in February-April 2024 and complete the reports by March 2025.
The pre-proposals followed the general instructions provided on the ESTCP website with the following modifications to Section 2.2 Pre-Proposal Content:
- Subsections 1-6, 8, 9, 11 are unchanged.
- Subsection 7, Technology Description, sub-subsection (a) is unchanged. Sub-subsection (b) should provide a description of the main elements of the proposed study and how it will inform DoD ZEV acquisition planning. Sub-subsections (c), (e) and (f) are not applicable. Sub-subsection (d), Technical Approach, should describe proposers’ approach to performing the necessary analysis to support the study findings and recommendations. Sources of existing related work should be identified with explanation of how this study will build upon past work.
- Subsection 10, Technology Transition: Not Applicable.
- Subsection 12, Funding: Project costs should be estimated to complete the analysis and reporting within the prescribed timeline; however, proposers may include analysis for more than one installation.
The studies will demonstrate potential pathways to successful transition of installations to zero-emission heavy-duty vehicles and assist DoD to meet the requirements outlined in Executive Order 14057, Catalyzing Clean Energy Industries and Jobs Through Federal Sustainability. The outcomes of the studies will inform DoD installations in their facility assessment and planning activities, and identify potential technology gaps or other or barriers to transitioning to ZEVs.
Section 102(a)(ii) of Executive Order 14057, issued in December 2021, requires Federal Agencies to “achieve 100% zero-emission vehicle acquisitions by 2035, including 100% zero-emission light-duty vehicle acquisitions by 2027”. Currently there are several battery-electric vehicle makes and models available in the market that are considered equivalent to many of the light-duty vehicles in the Department’s non-tactical fleet. The Department is actively replacing internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles with equivalent (passenger capacity, gross weight) electric vehicles, and will continue to increase ZEV acquisition to meet the EO goals. Based on current trends in battery technology and electric vehicle production, it is expected that the medium-duty vehicles in the Department’s fleet will be replaced with equivalent battery-electric vehicles as they become available.
While light and medium-duty vehicles are well suited for replacement with battery-electric equivalents, it is not clear that battery-electric versions of heady-duty vehicles will meet the Department’s needs of performance or transition timeline. The Department’s heavy-duty vehicle fleet is quite varied, some with unique performance requirements, and the market for equivalent ZEV alternatives is uncertain. Analysis of the performance requirements of the existing heavy-duty vehicles and assessment of technology alternatives will help the Department develop more informed plans for meeting the ZEV acquisition goals outlined in E.O. 14057.