SERDP & ESTCP Webinar Series
SERDP and ESTCP have launched a webinar series to promote the transfer of innovative, cost-effective and sustainable solutions developed through projects funded in five program areas. The webinar series targets Department of Defense and Department of Energy practitioners, the regulatory community and environmental researchers with the goal of providing cutting edge and practical information that is easily accessible at no cost.
Hexavalent Chrome Elimination from Hard Chrome Surface Finishing
Dr. Jonathan McCrea, Integran Technologies
Mr. Jack Benfer and Mr. Ruben Prado, Naval Air Systems Command (NAVAIR)
Presented October 1, 2015 – Webinar Slides
Electrodeposition of Nanocrystalline Cobalt-Phosphorus Coatings as a Hard Chrome Alternative for Use in Aerospace and Defense Applications by Dr. Jonathan McCrea
Electrolytic Hard Chromium plating (EHC) is a critical manufacturing process widely used for applying hard coatings and for general re-build of worn or corroded aircraft components. However, EHC plating baths contain chromium in its hexavalent state which is a known carcinogen. Therefore, the replacement of hard chromium plating in aircraft manufacturing activities and maintenance depots is a high priority for the Department of Defense (DoD).
Nanovate™ CR, a nanocrystalline cobalt-phosphorus alloy, is commercially available as an environmentally compliant alternative to EHC coatings. As an electrodeposition process, Nanovate™ CR is fully compatible with existing EHC infrastructure, but exhibits higher cathodic efficiencies and deposition rates than EHC, thus yielding higher throughput, reduced plant footprint and reduced energy consumption. Further, Nanovate™ CR offers significant performance enhancements over EHC including superior sliding wear, lubricity, corrosion and much improved fatigue properties.
Nanovate™ CR was developed using SERDP and ESTCP funding, and is now covered under US Military Specification (MIL-DTL-32502). ESTCP project WP-200936 investigated Nanovate™ CR through performance testing and demonstration/validation on a number of components from NAVAIR (air vehicle and ground support equipment) and NAVSEA (shipboard machinery components and ground support equipment).
A general overview of the process and properties of nanostructured coatings will be presented in comparison to EHC and other conventional materials. A review of the broad areas of application and demonstration/validation programs for nanostructured materials will also be included. The use of the technology for electroforming high strength bushings, investigated as part of SERDP project WP-2137, will also be discussed.
The replacement of EHC plating in aircraft maintenance activities in depots is a high priority for the DoD. EHC is a critical process that is used for applying hard coatings to a variety of aircraft components in manufacturing operations and for general re-build of worn or corroded components that have been removed from aircraft during overhaul.
EHC plating baths contain chromium in its hexavalent state, a known carcinogen. Waste generated from plating operations must be disposed of as a hazardous waste, and plating operations must abide by EPA’s emissions standards and OSHA’s permissible exposure limits (PEL). In 2006, OSHA reduced the PEL for hexavalent chrome and all its compounds from 52 µg/m3 to 5 µg/m3. As such, there is tremendous pressure to find an environmentally acceptable alternative to EHC.
Electrodeposited nanocrystalline cobalt-phosphorus (nCoP) coatings have completed initial evaluations under the ESTCP program (WP-200936). This was achieved through performance testing and demonstration/validation on a number of components from NAVAIR (aircraft components and ground support equipment) and NAVSEA (Naval Sea Systems Command) (shipboard machinery components and ground support equipment) with leveraged funding from the Navy Environmental Sustainability Development to Integration (NESDI) Program. nCoP coatings show great potential as an alternative to EHC due to higher cathodic efficiency, higher deposition rates, high hardness, good sliding wear and superior corrosion resistance. This coating is now specified for engineering design using the recently published military specification, MIL-DTL-32502.
This presentation will provide a general overview of the process and properties of nCoP coatings compared to those of EHC. The current testing results of the Joint Test Protocol and field insertion of a component according to ESTCP’s demonstration/validation plan will also be discussed.
Dr. Jonathan L. McCrea is the Vice President of Research and Development for Integran Technologies, Inc. Dr. McCrea received his Bachelor’s degree in Metallurgical and Materials Engineering at Queen’s University and his Ph.D. from the Department of Material Science and Engineering at the University of Toronto. He has worked in the area of nanostructured materials for over 17 years with a focus on microstructure-property relationships of nanocrystalline materials and the adhesion of nanometal coatings to polymer composites, specifically pertaining to durable/protective coatings for carbon fiber composites and low frequency electromagnetic induction (EMI) protection. Dr. McCrea has been the principal investigator for multiple DoD-funded projects (SERDP WP-1152, WP-1616 and WP-2137) which provided the fundamental research basis for developing environmentally benign nanocrystalline cobalt-alloy coatings for hard chrome alternative, nanocrystalline zinc-nickel coatings for cadmium alternative, and nanostructured copper and cobalt alloys as an alternative to copper beryllium. Dr. McCrea has also led various Canadian Government-sponsored demonstration and validation projects such as Industry Canada’s TPC, SADI and DDSA programs. Dr. McCrea has presented papers at many international conferences and co-authored over 25 scientific publications in the area of nanocrystalline materials. He is an active member of many professional organizations including the Professional Engineers of Ontario (PEO), American Electroplaters and Surface Finishers Society (AESF), SAMPE, SAE and ASM International.
Mr. Jack Benfer is the Senior Corrosion Engineering Technical Expert and Corrosion Control Program Manager for NAVAIR, Jacksonville. Mr. Benfer has over 26 years of NAVAIR and NAVSEA engineering experience. He holds a Bachelor of Science degree in Materials Engineering from Virginia Tech and a Master’s degree in Materials Science and Engineering from the University of Florida. Mr. Benfer is a NAVAIR Associate Fellow, ITC-certified thermographer, and a certified member of the International Association of Corrosion Engineers. He has authored numerous technical engineering reports and is currently published within Vol. 13 of the ASM Handbook. Mr. Benfer provides in-service engineering support to the depot and fleet through his duties within NAVAIR, and supports Research Development Test and Evaluation (RDT&E) and Acquisition workloads through direct program sponsors and in collaboration with the Naval Air Warfare Center. Mr. Benfer served as Principle Investigator for ESTCP projects WP-200407 and WP-200936 for the development of infrared inspection techniques and nano-crystaline cobalt-phosphorus electroplating, with both receiving project of the year awards. Additionally, Mr. Benfer received the Civilian Meritorious Service Award in 2015 for significant contributions to the U.S. Navy.
Ruben Prado is a Senior Inorganic Coatings Chemist currently working in the Materials Engineering Laboratory at the Naval Air Systems Command, Naval Air Depot, Jacksonville, FL. He is the subject matter expert in electroplating and surface finishing particularly dealing in corrosion and wear coatings on ferrous and non-ferrous alloys in support of P-3, EA-6B, F/A-18, J-52, T-45 and various other programs. He has dedicated over 28 years of professional service to the DoD in surface engineering that encompasses 8 years with the Air Force at Kelly AFB as an Industrial Chemist and over 20 years with NAVAIR as a Process Control and Inorganic Coatings Chemist within the Corrosion Engineering Competency (18.104.22.168) for Materials Engineering. Mr. Prado also provides local training in the area of Aluminum Anodizing for artisans requiring Special Skill Certification, and is continuously involved in process improvements and pollution prevention efforts within NAVAIR.
Mr. Prado has also been involved in numerous projects dealing with alternative coatings and improved metal finishing processes supporting the F-15, F-16, C-130 and C-5 programs and has received several awards for his contribution towards process advancements including development of a computer program for optimizing solution analysis and control of finishing operations. His expertise and leadership has resulted in NAVAIR authorization and implementation of advanced anodizing technology across the Navy Fleet Readiness Centers.
Mr. Prado graduated from the University of Central Florida with a Bachelor’s degree in Chemistry in 1987. In 1997, he received his certification as an Electroplater-Finisher from the American Electroplaters and Surface Finishing Society and was recognized as a NAVAIR Associate Fellow in 2011.
- Installation Energy and Water (14)
- 08/08/2019 - Building Energy and Water Efficiency Solutions
- 02/21/2019 - Utilization of Advanced Conservation Voltage Reduction for Energy Reduction on DoD Installations
- 07/12/2018 - Innovative Low-Cost Building Automation Sensors and Controls
- 03/22/2018 - Cloud Computing Services for DoD - We Are Going to The Cloud!
- 11/16/2017 - Building Envelope Technologies
- 06/15/2017 - Coupling Geothermal Heat Pumps with Underground Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage
- 04/20/2017 - Solutions for Installations' Participation in Energy Markets
- 01/12/2017 - Award Winning Projects: Energy and Water
- 10/06/2016 - Cyber Security and its Impacts on Installation Energy Management
- 07/14/2016 - Remote Methods for Water Conservation
- 05/05/2016 - Cost Effective and Resilient Building-Scale Microgrid Solutions for Increased Energy Security
- 10/15/2015 - LED-ing the Way: Sophisticated and Energy Efficient Exterior Lighting Systems for DoD Installations
- 02/19/2015 - Raise the Roof: Increased Rooftop Solar Efficiency Beyond Flat Panel PV
- 12/18/2014 - Energy Audits: From Clipboard to Cloud
- Environmental Restoration (36)
- 11/07/2019 - Status of SERDP and ESTCP Efforts on PFAS and Innovative Approaches for Treatment of Waste Derived from PFAS Subsurface Investigations
- 10/24/2019 - Advances in Managing Contaminated Groundwater Using High Resolution Site Characterization and Contaminant Mass Flux Reduction
- 10/17/2019 - Managing AFFF Impacts to Subsurface Environments and Assessment of Commercially Available Fluorine-Free Foams
- 09/05/2019 - The Use of Advanced Molecular Biological Tools in Groundwater Contaminated with Chlorinated Solvents
- 06/20/2019 - Vapor Intrusion: Modeling Tools and Cost Effective Mitigation
- 05/23/2019 - Treatment Options for the Emerging Contaminants 1,2,3-Trichloropropane and 1,2-Dibromoethane
- 04/11/2019 - Managing Contaminated Sediments: Passive Sampling Methods and In Situ Treatment
- 02/07/2019 - The REMChlor-MD Groundwater Transport and Remediation Model for Sites with Matrix Diffusion
- 11/15/2018 - Stormwater Impacts on Sediment Recontamination
- 10/18/2018 - Restoration of Chlorinated Solvent Contaminated Groundwater Sites: The Value of Information Challenge
- 10/04/2018 - Managing Groundwater Impacts at Chlorinated Solvent Sites
- 08/09/2018 - Energy Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Systems for Forward Operating DoD Installations
- 06/28/2018 - Managing Sites Impacted by 1,4-Dioxane: New Developments in Molecular Tools and Conceptual Site Models
- 09/07/2017 - Research and Development Needs for Management of DoD's PFAS Contaminated Sites
- 07/27/2017 - Management of Energetic and Propellant Material Releases on Testing and Training Ranges
- 05/18/2017 - High-Resolution Site Characterization at Chlorinated Solvents Sites
- 04/06/2017 - 1,4-Dioxane Impacts and Innovative Cleanup Technologies at DoD Contaminated Sites
- 03/09/2017 - Award Winning Projects: Environmental Restoration
- 02/23/2017 - Monitoring and Risk Assessment of Environmental Risks Posed by Munitions Constituents in Aquatic Systems
- 12/15/2016 - Advances in the Assessment and In Situ Treatment of Contaminated Sediments
- 11/03/2016 - Bioavailability of Contaminants of Concern in Soils at DoD-Impacted Sites
- 09/08/2016 - Practical Assessment and Optimization of Redox-Based Groundwater Remediation Technologies
- 07/28/2016 - Geophysics 101 – Realistic expectations for geophysics when used for site characterization and remediation monitoring - Part 2
- 06/30/2016 - Geophysics 101 – Realistic expectations for geophysics when used for site characterization and remediation monitoring - Part 1
- 06/02/2016 - Insensitive Munitions: Environmental Health Criteria, Fate and Transport
- 04/21/2016 - Long Term Monitoring Issues at Chlorinated Solvent Sites
- 01/28/2016 - Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFASs): Analytical and Characterization Frontiers
- 01/14/2016 - Vapor Intrusion: Regulatory Update and Advances in Assessment Tools
- 12/03/2015 - Emerging Contaminants: DoD Overview and State of Knowledge on Fluorochemicals and 1,4-Dioxane
- 10/29/2015 - Assessment and Treatment of Contaminated Sediments
- 08/20/2015 - Characterization and Remediation in Fractured Rock Environments
- 05/28/2015 - New Tools for Characterizing and Remediating Munitions and Energetics at Military Ranges
- 03/19/2015 - Quantitative Framework and Management Expectation Tool for the Selection of Bioremediation Approaches at Chlorinated Solvent Sites
- 01/08/2015 - DNAPL Source Zone Management Approaches
- 11/20/2014 - New Tools for Improving the Management of Contaminated Sediment Sites
- 10/30/2014 - Key Advances in Vapor Intrusion Assessments at Contaminated Sites
- Munitions Response (12)
- 07/25/2019 - Understanding Underwater Munitions Mobility and Behavior on the Beach Face and in Shallow Muddy Environments
- 08/23/2018 - Sediment Volume Search Sonar Development
- 11/02/2017 - Platforms for Underwater and Near-Shore Munitions Surveys
- 06/01/2017 - Classification of Military Munitions using Electromagnetic Induction Data
- 02/09/2017 - Award Winning Projects: Munitions Response
- 06/16/2016 - Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPP) for Advanced Geophysical Classification Investigations – Part 2
- 05/19/2016 - Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPP) for Advanced Geophysical Classification Investigations – Part 1
- 02/25/2016 - Recent Advances in the Classification of Underwater Munitions near a Water-Sediment Boundary
- 11/12/2015 - Munitions Response: Land Based Program Closeout
- 09/17/2015 - Munitions Response: Underwater Geophysical Sensors
- 05/07/2015 - Factors Affecting Munitions Mobility Underwater and In Situ Measurements
- 02/05/2015 - Acoustic Methods for Underwater Munitions
- Resource Conservation and Resiliency (21)
- 10/03/2019 - Variation in Phenological Shifts: How do Annual Cycles and Genetic Diversity Constrain or Enable Responses to Climate Change?
- 08/22/2019 - Pacific Island Ecology and Management: Recovery of Native Plant Communities Following Removal of Non-Native Species
- 06/20/2019 - Developing Adaptation Strategies to Address Climate Change and Uncertainty
- 05/09/2019 - Roles of Soil Microbial Communities in Ecosystem Restoration
- 03/14/2019 - Determining the Temporal and Spatial Scales of Non-Stationarity in Temperature and Precipitation across the Continental United States
- 11/01/2018 - Plant Diversity and Biological Nitrogen Fixation in Longleaf Pine Ecosystems at Military Installations
- 09/20/2018 - Plant Diversity and Biological Nitrogen Fixation in Longleaf Pine Ecosystems at Military Installations
- 09/06/2018 - Informing Restoration Programs for Threatened and Endangered Plant Species
- 06/14/2018 - Approaches to Managing Threatened, Endangered and At-Risk Bird Species
- 05/03/2018 - Overview of the Defense Coastal/Estuarine Research Program (DCERP)
- 03/08/2018 - Quantifying and Modeling Fugitive Dust Emissions from DoD Activities
- 12/07/2017 - Management of Novel Hawaiian Ecosystems
- 10/05/2017 - New Resource Conservation Insights to Desert Environments
- 06/29/2017 - Future Vulnerabilities to Alaskan Ecosystems and Tools for Permafrost Assessment
- 02/23/2017 - Award Winning Projects: Resource Conservation and Resiliency
- 10/20/2016 - DoD Decision Making and Climate Change
- 09/22/2016 - Managing the Brown Treesnake Headache: Assessment of the Aerial Acetaminophen Bait Drop on Guam
- 04/07/2016 - Use of Climate Information for Decision Making and Impacts Research
- 12/17/2015 - Watershed Assessment and Stormwater Management Optimization Tools
- 03/26/2015 - Innovative Tools for Species Inventory, Monitoring, and Management
- 11/06/2014 - New Tools for Advancing Our Understanding of Marine Mammal Behavioral Ecology
- Weapons Systems and Platforms (20)
- 10/31/2019 - Developing and Demonstrating Non-Toxic and Sustainable Coating Systems for Military Platforms
- 09/19/2019 - Life Cycle Assessment and Developmental Environment Safety and Occupational Health Evaluation: Tools for Sustainment and Health
- 06/06/2019 - Developing and Demonstrating Non-Toxic and Sustainable Coating Systems for Military Platforms
- 04/25/2019 - Accelerated Corrosion and Ageing Studies
- 05/31/2018 - Resonant Acoustic Mixing of Energetic Material Formulations
- 04/05/2018 - Advanced Nanocrystalline Alloys as Alternatives for Repair and Replacement of High Wear Parts
- 02/08/2018 - Improved Methods to Evaluate Aerial Emissions and Develop Pollutant Emission Factors
- 10/19/2017 - Laser De-Paint and Surface Preparation Mechanism and Technologies
- 08/17/2017 - Zinc Nickel Dip and Brush Plating
- 05/04/2017 - Novel Coatings Systems for Use as High Performance Chemical Resistant Powder Topcoats
- 01/26/2017 - Award Winning Projects: Weapons Systems and Platforms
- 08/11/2016 - An Environmentally Acceptable Alternative for Fast Cook-Off Testing, Demonstration, Validation and Implementation Efforts
- 03/24/2016 - Cadmium and Chromate Elimination Efforts: Implementation Plans and Strategic Roadmaps for Three DoD Depots
- 02/11/2016 - Chromate/Hazardous Material Free Coating Systems for Military Aircraft and Ground Support Equipment
- 10/01/2015 - Hexavalent Chrome Elimination from Hard Chrome Surface Finishing
- 07/16/2015 - Sustainable Pyrotechnics: Flares and Projectiles
- 04/16/2015 - Blast Noise Measurements and Community Response
- 03/05/2015 - Understanding and Mitigating the Risks Associated with Lead-Free Electronics
- 01/22/2015 - Bio-Based Methodologies for the Production of Environmentally Sustainable Materials
- 12/04/2014 - Waste to Energy Options for Base Camps: Efficient Tar Management and Rotary Kiln Gasification
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