DNAPL Source Zones

Chlorinated solvents, such as trichloroethene (TCE) and tetrachloroethene (PCE), are released into the subsurface as dense nonaqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs), which can persist for centuries. SERDP and ESTCP efforts have encompassed a range of issues related to DNAPL in the areas of source zone depletion, fractured rock, thermal treatment, in situ chemical oxidation, nanoscale iron, bioremediation, and technology performance evaluation. Tools are being developed that enable site managers to characterize the size and longevity of the contaminated plume, apply cost-effective remediation and monitoring techniques, and predict the duration of site remediation.

Product List by Product and Date Posted
Product Date Posted

Chlorinated Solvent Source Zone Remediation


This  reference book published by Springer to help engineers and scientists better understand dense nonaqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) contamination of groundwater and the methods and technology used for characterization and remediation. Remediation of DNAPL source zones is very difficult and controversial and must be based on state-of-the-art knowledge of the behavior (transport and fate) of nonaqueous phase liquids in the subsurface and site specific geology, chemistry and hydrology. This volume is focused on the characterization and remediation of nonaqueous phase chlorinated solvents and it is hoped that mid-level engineers and scientists will find this book helpful in understanding the current state-of-practice of DNAPL source zone management and remediation.

Jan 2018

Bioaugmentation for Groundwater Remediation

Reference Book

This reference book published by Springer reviews the past 10-15 years of research and development that have led to bioaugmentation becoming an effective and accepted remedial technology. Decision-making processes for implementing bioaugmentation, design and cost considerations, and monitoring options are described. The book serves as a reference for environmental remediation professionals seeking to understand, evaluate, and implement bioaugmentation.

Oct 2012

Thermal Treatment Technologies: Lessons Learned

On-Demand Video

This  on-demand video presents lessons learned from a suite of thermal treatment projects, as presented in a short course at the 2011 SERDP and ESTCP Symposium. The course was designed to promote a more comprehensive understanding of thermal treatment technologies and their potential effects, by highlighting the state of the art and recent advances. 

Mar 2012

Delivery and Mixing in the Subsurface: Processes and Design Principles for In Situ Remediation

Reference Book

This reference book published by Springer describes the principles of chemical delivery and mixing systems and their design and implementation for effective in situ remediation. It serves as a reference for decision makers, practicing engineers and hydrogeologists who select, design and operate remedial systems, as well as the researchers seeking to improve the current state of the art.

Mar 2012

Principles and Practices of In Situ Chemical Oxidation

On-Demand Video

This  on-demand video provides an overview of the in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) Technology Practices Manual as presented in a short course at the 2010 SERDP and ESTCP Symposium. ISCO case studies as documented in the scientific literature are summarized and various guidance and decision support tools are discussed.

Application of the guidance and tools can enhance the site-specific engineering of ISCO for remediation of contaminated groundwater and help ensure more predictable, cost-effective performance.

May 2011

In Situ Chemical Oxidation for Groundwater Remediation

Reference Book

This reference book published by Springer describes the principles and practices of in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) for groundwater remediation. Chapters are based on a decade of intensive research, development, and demonstrations funded by SERDP, ESTCP, and others, and on lessons learned from commercial field applications. It serves as a reference for decision makers, practicing engineers, and hydrologists who select, design, and operate remedial systems, as well as researchers seeking to improve the state of the art.

Mar 2011

In Situ Chemical Oxidation for Groundwater Remediation – Technology Practices Manual


The ISCO Technology Practices Manual is comprised of a frequently asked questions (FAQ) guide and an interactive protocol with decision support tools and design models. This manual will enable cost-effective application of ISCO technologies to clean up contaminant source zones and groundwater plumes at DoD sites.

Oct 2010

State of the Practice Overview: Critical Evaluation of State-of-the-Art In Situ Thermal Treatment Technologies for DNAPL Source Zone Treatment

Technical Report

This report introduces commonly applied in situ thermal technologies including electrical resistance heating (ERH), in situ thermal desorption (ISTD), steam/hot air injection, and in situ soil mixing combined with steam/hot air injection. It summarizes key information gained from the review of 182 thermal applications. 

Feb 2010

Passive Flux Meter


The passive flux meter (PFM) is a self-contained permeable unit that is inserted into a well to measure cumulative water and contaminant fluxes. This protocol describes construction, care, and deployment of the PFM and details a standard operating procedure for the investigation of target analytes in groundwater. 

Apr 2009

Prediction of Groundwater Quality Improvement Down-Gradient of In Situ Permeable Treatment Barriers and Fully Remediated Source Zones

Software and Users Guide

The DGCHANGE software is a spreadsheet-based tool, designed to estimate dissolved contaminant concentration reductions with time in near-field monitoring wells down-gradient of permeable treatment barriers. The tool has a corresponding User’s Guide that describes the four worksheets focused on model inputs, a cross-section snapshot, and changes with time at a monitoring well.

Dec 2008

Frequently Asked Questions Regarding Management of Chlorinated Solvents in Soils and Groundwater

Guidance and On-Demand Video

This Frequently Asked Questions document provides a concise overview of current knowledge regarding the management of subsurface chlorinated solvent releases and is intended to be used as a support tool for making sound management decisions. An  on-demand video providing a summary of this material also is available.

Jul 2008

Estimating Cleanup Times Associated with Combining Source-Area Remediation with Monitored Natural Attenuation

Software and Users Guide

This Natural Attenuation Software provides a screening tool for users to estimate remediation time frames for monitored natural attenuation (MNA) to lower groundwater contaminant concentrations to regulatory limits and to assist in decision making on the level of source zone treatment in conjunction with MNA, using site-specific remediation objectives.

Nov 2006

Mass Flux Tool Kit

Model / Software

The Mass Flux Tool Kit is a spreadsheet-based software tool that enables users to learn about different mass flux approaches, calculate mass flux from transect data, and apply mass flux values to manage groundwater plumes.

Mar 2006

Bioaugmentation for Remediation of Chlorinated Solvents: Technology Development Status and Research Needs

Technical Report

This report summarizes the technical and regulatory status of bioaugmentation for chlorinated ethenes, as of May 2005, and identifies research needs to be addressed to facilitate successful widespread use of the technology.

Oct 2005