Energy Security for Military Installations through Optimized Integration of Large-Scale Energy Storage into Microgrids
Arindam Maitra | Electric Power Research Institute, Inc.
The overall objective of this project is to improve energy security on military bases while reducing the cost of providing electric service by optimally designing and implementing microgrids with large scale energy storage. The project will demonstrate the use of advanced energy storage technologies (comprising of Li-Ion, flow batteries and other technologies) to provide improved energy security performance as a function of costs within a microgrid relative to a baseline diesel microgrid without energy storage. Economically optimal sizing of potential energy storage technologies at five selected DoD installations will be analyzed. The objective of this effort is to develop an innovative, transparent, and repeatable microgrid design methodology that will be applied to five military installations to generate least-cost, robust microgrid designs that are competitive with similar diesel generator-based microgrids in net cost and critical load coverage probability. This methodology will be easily extensible to similar microgrids. By subjecting the designs to rigorous repetitive simulation, the method will explore a large number of reliability and economic scenarios to well-characterize the reliability, resiliency, PV-smoothing, and economic performance of the designs. These designs will replace current military base microgrids that rely on uninterruptible power supplies (UPSs) – short duration energy storage systems that cannot be used for economic benefit during normal operation - and diesel generators, which may not start up when needed, require ongoing exercise/maintenance, and produce carbon emissions and other pollutants.
This project will implement a long-duration storage technology to cover critical load on military bases for long outages more cost-effectively than other contemporary microgrids. Examining lithium ion batteries, flow batteries, pressurized storage, thermal storage, or a combination of storage technologies will result in microgrid designs that perform well for economic, power quality, reliability, and resiliency objectives.
Using microgrids with a combination of large scale energy storage, solar PV generation, and diesel generators will reduce the risk of loss of critical load during grid outages, carbon emissions and other pollutants, and the cost of electricity during normal operation. The primary benefits include: energy savings (computed using the Savings-to-Investment Ratio and Payback Period) through self-generation and arbitrage, peak demand charge reduction, energy security (i.e. avoided cost of lost load), fuel savings, lower operations and maintenance (O&M) costs to maintain diesel generators, and emissions reduction through increased renewable generation.