1,4-Dioxane Remediation by Extreme Soil Vapor Extraction (XSVE)

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ESTCP 2017 Project-of-the-year Award for Environmental Restoration

1,4-Dioxane, a cyclic diether used as an additive in chlorinated solvents is a common and persistent groundwater contaminant. While conventional soil vapor extraction (SVE) can remove some 1,4-dioxane, a substantial residual source is left behind causing long-term groundwater contamination. Due to the compound’s complete miscibility in water, 1,4-dioxane becomes sequestered in the vadose zone pore water which serves as a long-term source of groundwater contamination.

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Dr. Rob Hinchee from Integrated Science & Technology, Inc. and his team led a project that aimed to evaluate and demonstrate the efficacy of enhanced or extreme soil vapor extraction (XSVE) designed specifically to remove 1,4-dioxane from the vadose zone by incorporating enhancements such as increased air flow, increased temperature and focused vapor extraction. A screening-level mass and energy balance model, HypeVent XSVE, was developed to simulate the remediation of 1,4-dioxane by XSVE.

The study results indicate that 1,4-dioxane concentrations in the treatment zone decreased about 95% and soil moisture decreased about 45%. Downward migration of 1,4-dioxane due to condensation was not observed. HypeVent XSVE adequately simulated 1,4-dioxane removal, soil moisture and soil temperatures observed during the demonstration. Sensitivity analyses showed that 1,4-dioxane removal benefited considerably from heated air injection.

XSVE has been demonstrated to be a cost-effective remediation approach 1,4-dioxane in the vadose zone, which may reduce the need for long-term groundwater remediation. HypeVent XSVE has been demonstrated to be a useful feasibility assessment and design tool for XSVE of 1,4-dioxane.

For this significant work, Dr. Hinchee and his team received the 2017 ESTCP Project of the Year Award for Environmental Restoration for their project titled 1,4-Dioxane Remediation by Extreme Soil Vapor Extraction (XSVE).

Project Team

  • Rob Hinchee - IST
  • Dave Burris - IST
  • Paul C. Johnson – Colorado School of Mines
  • Paul Dahlen - Arizona State University
  • Yuanming Guo – Arizona State University
  • Kimiye Touchi - AECOM
  • Hunter Anderson - AFCEC
  • Dave Becker – USACE
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Dave Burris, IST, accepts the 2017 ESTCP Project of the Year Award for Environmental Restoration on behalf of lead principal investigator, Rob Hinchee. Back Row (left to right): Yuanming Guo, Arizona State; Paul Johnson, Colorado School of Mines; Paul Dahlen, Arizona State. Front Row: Andrea Leeson, ESTCP; Dave Burris, IST; Herb Nelson, ESTCP. (Photo by Trish Gottesman)

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