Energy efficiency and renewable energy have long been important to DoD, but the focus of the conversation has shifted somewhat in recent years. In the past, the focus was on saving money on energy so that more of the funds could be used for direct mission priorities. Now the focus has shifted to view energy resilience as a critical component of mission success.
Per DoDI 4170.11,  energy resilience is defined as follows: “DoD Components shall plan and have the capability to ensure available, reliable, and quality power to continuously accomplish DoD missions from military installations and facilities.” A very practical means of achieving this desired resilience was proposed in 1982, by Amory B. and L. Hunter Lovins in their book “Brittle Power: Energy Strategy for National Security.” The authors draw upon lessons from the natural world to propose the following definition of resilient energy: “…an energy system that uses more dispersed, diverse, local, and redundant modules…, each with a low individual cost of failure.” 
To enable a more diverse, dispersed, and ultimately more resilient energy system for DoD installations, ESTCP has been investing in innovative technologies such as renewable sources and microgrids. As these technologies become more sophisticated and buildings get “smarter,” the technologies rely more heavily upon industrial controls to maximize their potential and maintain synchronous operation.
The control systems range from building environmental controls to large-scale systems such as the electrical power grid, and are often integrated with mainstream organizational IT systems to promote connectivity, efficiency, and remote access capabilities. This level of interconnectivity poses security, operability, and reliability threats. Within the DoD, there are an estimated 2.5 million unique control systems that are used in over 300,000 buildings (each building may have 5–20 subsystems such as HVAC, lighting, and fire) and over 250,000 linear structures (airfield lighting, pipeline, rail, etc.). Recent cyber-attacks that used industrial control system components as back doors into business IT networks have increased awareness of the vulnerabilities posed by the control systems. This increased awareness of vulnerabilities has led to greater scrutiny of control system design and security.
In recognition of the integral role played by the control systems in a resilient energy system, and the growing threat to those control systems posed by cyber-attacks, ESTCP has begun to invest in demonstrations aimed at developing innovative solutions to securing industrial controls against cyber-attack. These demonstrations include the following:
1) A tool that provides cybersecurity integration, evaluation, and continuous monitoring for Critical Infrastructure Protection (CIP) and Industrial Control Systems (ICS) ( Continuous Industrial Control System (ICS) Security Situational Awareness Tool (CISSAT) [EW-201405]).
2) A capability to mitigate and recover quickly from online and insider cyber activities directed against Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) infrastructure ( Critical Energy Infrastructure Cyber Defense-in-Depth [EW-201607]).
3) Mitigating the risk of a cyber-attack from software upgrades to both critical electric grid infrastructure and building automations systems ( Cyber-Security Integrity for Electric Grid Facilities Management [EW-201608]).
4) A cost-effective and cyber-secure platform enclave solution that will enable operation of Utility Monitoring and Control System (UMCS) over the military network ( Behavior Based Information Management - Facilities Management (BBIM-FM) [EW-201609]).