- Program Areas
- Energy and Water
- Environmental Restoration
- Munitions Response
- Resource Conservation and Climate Change
- Weapons Systems and Platforms
Development of Environmental Health Criteria for Insensitive Munitions (IMX-101-104)
New energetic formulations are being developed to provide for insensitive munitions (IMs). IMX-101, a mixture of dinitroanisole (DNAN), nitroguanidine (NQ), and nitrotriazalone (NTO), has been qualified as a TNT replacement explosive, while IMX-104, a mixture of DNAN, NTO, and RDX, is nearing completion as a qualified replacement of Composition B. Components of these new IM formulations have the potential to migrate from soil to surface water and groundwater sources when incomplete or unexploded detonations occur. Furthermore, recent toxicity data suggest that one component, NTO, is a male reproductive toxicant that may act through endocrine disruption. Additionally, due to the IM design, blow-in-place may result in higher environmental residues exacerbating the magnitude of environmental releases at ranges. The objective of this project is to provide focused toxicity information for NTO and DNAN that will allow for more accurate benchmark derivation consistent with existing regulatory guidance and frameworks and allow for optimal operational flexibility at ranges while ensuring environmental health.
Previously, incomplete toxicity data have been used to develop regulatory values that, once promulgated, become difficult to update even when additional, focused data are provided. This approach has resulted in the use of uncertainty factors, often several orders of magnitude in scope, applied to toxicity benchmarks by regulators to protect human health and the environment. For example, the lack of toxicity data has resulted in exceedingly low drinking water criteria for RDX, which has closed, curtailed, and restricted range operations. Thus, an assemblage of toxicity information is needed that can reduce the use and magnitude of uncertainty factors prior to the promulgation of regulatory benchmarks. The in vivo/in vitro approach in this project is designed to fill specific data gaps that will provide insights regarding reproductive and developmental toxicity and endocrine disruption and will refine no-effect levels and generate benchmark toxicity values for mammals, birds, and amphibians exposed to NTO and DNAN. The development of benchmark values and mode of action information will limit the use of default uncertainty factors by regulatory agencies for developing environmental cleanup criteria.
This project will provide a toxicology data package for developing more certain, less conservative toxicity criteria that will ultimately be derived for NTO and DNAN. A comprehensive toxicology data package will provide necessary information from which developers and production facilities can better estimate full life-cycle costs, implement engineering controls, and protect the environment, all of which will help sustain range operations and readiness. (Anticipated Project Completion - 2015)
Points of Contact
Dr. Mark Johnson
U.S. Army Institute of Public Health
SERDP and ESTCP
- Fact Sheet - Brief project summary with links to related documents and points of contact.
- Final Report - Comprehensive report for every completed SERDP and ESTCP project that contains all technical results.
- Cost & Performance Report - Overview of ESTCP demonstration activities, results, and conclusions, standardized to facilitate implementation decisions.
- Technical Report - Additional interim reports, laboratory reports, demonstration reports, and technology survey reports.
- Guidance - Instructional information on technical topics such as protocols and user’s guides.
- Workshop Report - Summary of workshop discussion and findings.
- Multimedia - On demand videos, animations, and webcasts highlighting featured initiatives or technologies.
- Model/Software - Computer programs and applications available for download.
- Database - Digitally organized collection of data available to search and access.